Sunday, January 16, 2011

Computer Network : Basic Theory

by Khairur Razikin(08030047), Astika Ayuning Tyas (08030066), Suwito(08030073)

The world has entered an information age that will develop andcontinue to grow.Information into something that is needed by allpeople, all circles both government and private agencies and evenall countries.Computers Compute derived from the word which means to calculate. This tool was first made because of the basichuman need to calculate something. Because along with the developmentof human needs in an increasingly complex calculation that is notenough just with the calculation of addition, subtraction,multiplication and division of the calculators(computers) continue to be developed.In human development, the desire for speed in processing andcommunication so that the computer be used as a communication tool in a particular tissue is often called the networkcomputer.Seeing the increasing number of problems faced when his use of technology using computer networks, communication, andincreasing levels ofdemand and the increasing number of networkusers who want a form of networkthat can deliver maximum resultsboth in terms of efficiency and increase networksecurity itself. Thisled the experts continue to develop new methods that are useful forimproving efficiency and network security.

Introduction to Computer Networks
With the development of computer technology and the communication of a singlecomputer model that serves allcomputing tasks an organization has now beenreplaced by a set of computers that have separate but interrelated in performingtheir duties, such systems are called computer network (computernetwork). Acomputer network comprising at least two computersthat are interconnected with amedia so that these computers can share resources and communicate with each other. All networkbased on the concept of division.
Computer network is a system consisting of computers and other network devicesthat work together to achieve a common purpose.Another understanding ofcomputer network is a group ofautonomous computers interconnected with eachother usingcommunication protocols via communication media in order toshareinformation, program - a program, use of common hardwaresuch as printers,hard disk, and so forth. In addition, computernetworks can be interpreted as a collection of a number ofcommunications terminals located in different locationsconsistingof more than one computer that are interconnected.
Objectives and Benefits of Computer Networks
The aim is for a computer network can be connected to one another using acommunication protocol via the communicationsmedia so that they can share information. The need for information, which is why technology is growing rapidly.In addition, also toincrease the level of efficiency and security than computer networks as a medium of communication.
While the benefits of computer networks there are two parts, namely the benefitsto be gained by making computer networksand the benefits that can be obtainedby a computer network.Here's more explanation:
The benefits to be obtained with a computer network, namely:
1. Provides the opportunity for computer users to utilize the resources together,such as use of the printer or use an internet connection together.
2. Optimizing the use of the device so that the achievement ofefficiencies such asno need for individual computers equippedwith printers due to the network so that2 (two) or more computersto use 1 (one) printer.
3. Communication between different operating systems, so no need in a computernetwork they need to use the same operating system.

The benefits to be gained by the network, as follows:
2. Ring Topology
Or ring topology is often called a ring topology is a network topology where each computer connected to make a circle. With a sense that every computer that is connected into a network of inter-connected to two other computers to form a similar network with a ring.
The advantages of this topology is the cable used may be more savings. But the shortcomings of this topology is the development of the network will be difficult because each computer will be connected to each other.

3. Token Ring Topology
This topology is similar to the ring topology but making more in perfected. Can be viewed from the difference image.

In the picture clearly shows how the token ring connecting cable was made into the circle first and later will make terminals on each computer and other devices.

4. Star Topology
Or star topology is more often called a star topology. In this topology we have used the help of other tools to connect your computer network. Examples of tools in use here is the hub, switch, etc..

In one picture is clearly seen to function as the central hub connecting the computers that are interconnected. The advantage of this topology is very much at all of them easier to manage network admin, allows the addition of computers or terminals, ease of detecting defects and errors in the network. But with its many advantages in terms of topology this is not without flaws.Shortcomings include waste of cable, which centered on the hub of control sometimes so critical problems if in case of damage to the hub, then all the networks will not be in use.
5. Tree Topology
Topology tree or hierarchical topology also called and could also be called multilevel topology is the topology that can be used on the network in the storied office. >
In the picture we can see the relationship between one computer to another computer is a branching with a clear central hierarchy or center which is at the very top of an active central central while underneath is a passive central.

1. The network enables efficient resource management.
2. The network helps to maintain the information in order to remainreliable and up to date.
3. The network helps accelerate the process of sharing data.
4. The network enables working groups to communicate moreefficiently.
5. The network helps businesses in serving their clients moreeffectively.
Computer Network Topology
Topology is the part that explains the relationship betweencomputers that are builtbased on usability, limited resources andlimited funds, means that the networktopologies are usuallyadjusted denagan state of the field. Topology consists ofseveraltypes, among others:
1. Bus Topology
This topology is the initial topology in use to connect computers. Inthis topologyeach computer is connected to a long cable withseveral terminals and at the endof the cable must end with aterminator. This topology is rarely used in ordinarycomputernetwork because it has some shortcomings such as its probablecollisiondata stream, if one device is broken or there is damage to one part of the computer network will not work immediately beforethe damage is solved.

This topology was originally used as a medium of instruction Coaxial cable data and information. But at this point in building this topology in computer network using fiber optic kabal (fiber optic) but combined with other network topology to maximize performance.

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